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This report was supported by Grant No. 2019-ZB-BX-K004, awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. We are grateful to them and to all our funders, who make it possible for Urban to advance its mission. 

The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders. Funders do not determine research findings or the insights and recommendations of Urban experts. Further information on the Urban Institute’s funding principles is available at 

The authors would also like to thank our colleagues Samantha Harvell, Robin Olsen, and Genevieve Citrin Ray for their invaluable support during this research, Janeen Buck-Willison for her technical review of this report, and Zach VeShancey for his copyediting assistance. We also wish to thank the many stakeholders who spoke with us to share their experiences and perspectives, and the JRI technical assistance providers for sharing their expertise with us. 

The Bureau of Justice Assistance is a component of the Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Office for Victims of Crime, and the SMART Office. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the US Department of Justice. 


Leah Sakala

Ammar Khalid

Constance Hull

Rebecca Wong

Urban Institute

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Statement of Independence

The Urban Institute strives to meet the highest standards of integrity and quality in its research and analyses and in the evidence-based policy recommendations offered by its researchers and experts. We believe that operating consistent with the values of independence, rigor, and transparency is essential to maintaining those standards. As an organization, the Urban Institute does not take positions on issues, but it does empower and support its experts in sharing their own evidence-based views and policy recommendations that have been shaped by scholarship. Funders do not determine our research findings or the insights and recommendations of our experts. Urban scholars and experts are expected to be objective and follow the evidence wherever it may lead. 

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